After studying this chapter students should:
1. Be able to describe the response of the peoples of early China, Nubia, Celtic Europe, and Central America to the challenges of their environments.
2. Be able to explain the basis of power, status, and wealth in each of the societies treated in this chapter.
3. Be able to discuss the influence of older cultural centers on the development of Nubian and Celtic society.
4. Be able to analyze change over time in China, Nubia, Celtic Europe, and Central America, in terms of the significance of their varying environments, the roles of bronze, horses, and chariots, and the phenomenon of interdependence.